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Juni 25, 2010


Coconut timber
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timber is a hardwood-substitute from coconut palm trees. It is referred to in the Philippines as Coconut Lumber, or Coco Lumber. It is a new timber resource that comes from plantation crops and offers an alternative to rainforest timber.

Coconut timber comes from farmed plantations of old coconut palms. The coconut palm was planted as a crop in large plantations throughout the tropics in the early half of the 20th century in order to harvest the coconut fruit. The tree bears fruit until approximately 70 years of age, at which point it is considered to have reached the end of its economic life and is felled to make way for future crops. Each year, several million palms are felled throughout the tropics. Traditionally, the trunks have been wasted by-products from this process.

Only in very recent years have people begun to explore the potential commercial uses for this vast, alternative supply of timber. This led to the commercial launch of coconut timber in a range of different products, from flooring to posts to furniture. With these products performing at equal to or even better than conventional hardwoods, coconut timber represents a viable substitute for endangered hardwoods from an ecologically-sound source.
[edit] Characteristics

Colour tones and hues range from golden to near ebony, with dark brown flecks. There are three basic coconut timber colour divisions relating to the timber's density: dark brown tones (high density); medium brown tones (medium density); and light golden tones (low density).

Coconut trees have no annual growth rings, rays, heartwood or branches, meaning that coconut timber is free from knots and other such imperfections.
[edit] Properties

The coconut palm is a monocotyledon. It has a smooth, slender stem that grows to a height of about 25 metres and with an average diameter of 300mm. The hardest, densest part of the wood is found on the outer perimeter of the trunk, which gives the tree its strength, while the wood’s high silica content gives the tree elasticity. Towards the centre of the trunk, the wood gets less hard.

Coconut timber is classified according to three degrees of density:

* High-density timber (dermal) – hard: 600-900kg/m³
* Medium-density timber (sub-dermal) – medium/hard: 400-600kg/m³
* Low-density timber (core) – soft/medium: 200-400kg/m³

Janka ball hardness test:-

* Coconut = 1600 – 2200 psi (dependent on which figures you look at)
* Douglas-fir = 510 psi
* Oak between 1000 – 1200 psi dependent on type of oak.

Palmwood is a finished material produced by Pacific Green from coconut timber which is stable across a range of climates.


Coconut timber has many applications as both a structural and interior design material. The harder, high-density timber is suitable for general structural purposes such as pillars, trusses, rafting, furniture, window and doorframes, floors, decking and floor joists. Medium density coconut timber can be used for walls, ceiling joists and horizontal studs. Low density coconut timber is used in non-load bearing applications like wood panelling, internal trim and ceilings, as well as homewares.

Kayu Karet

Rubberwood is the wood from the Pará rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). It has always been used on a small scale, but has become much more common now, a relative new-comer on the market. There are extensive plantations with these trees in southeastern Asia; the older practice was to just burn the tree when, at the age of about 25 to 30 years, it ceased to produce latex. The wood has become economically significant.

Rubberwood is now advertised as an "environmentally friendly" wood, as it makes use of plantation trees that have already served a useful function. It has a notable tendency to warp, which can be kept under control (mostly) by applying pressure during drying. It is fairly easy to work, and glues well: it is mostly used in the form of engineered lumber (finger-jointed) which eliminates some of its disadvantages. Also, as it is a byproduct and plentiful, it is cheap, which makes it a very popular material in the countries with plantations. Products made of rubberwood are a significant export for these countries; such products include toys, cutting boards, and furniture. Rubberwood is commonly marketed under other, more attractive-sounding names, such as "Malaysian Oak" or "White Mahogany".

Rubberwood is used in the manufacture of indoor furniture and gunstocks.

Rubberwood utilisation was pioneered by Kingsley Tisseverasinghe of Sri Lanka (b.24/01/1927). [citation needed] Before his discovery of a feasible treatment process for the wood of the rubber tree, the tree was only used for tapping/ harvesting of the tree's sap. His technique has led to the widespread usage of rubberwood as a multipurpose lumber product.

Juni 24, 2010


Ebony is a general name for very dense black wood. In the strict sense it is yielded by several species in the genus Diospyros, but other heavy, black (or dark colored) woods (from completely unrelated trees) are sometimes also called ebony. Some well-known species of ebony include Diospyros ebenum (Ceylon ebony), native to southern India and Sri Lanka, and Diospyros dendro (= D. crassiflora, Gaboon ebony), native to western Africa.

Ebony is one of the most intensely black woods known, which, combined with its very high density (it is one of the woods that sink in water), fine texture, and ability to polish very smoothly, has made it very valuable as an ornamental wood.

Some species in the genus Diospyros yield so-called striped ebony, with similar physical properties, which is not evenly black, but striped. Most species in the genus do not yield ebony at all, even in those cases where they do yield timber (as in the case of American persimmon, Diospyros virginiana).


Ebony has a long history of use, with carved pieces having been found in Ancient Egyptian tombs. The word "ebony" derives from the Ancient Egyptian hbny, via the Ancient Greek ἔβενος (ébenos), by way of Latin and Middle English.

By the end of the 16th century, fine cabinets for the luxury trade were made of ebony in Antwerp. The dense hardness lent itself to refined moldings framing finely detailed pictorial panels with carving in very low relief (bas-relief), usually of allegorical subjects, or scenes taken from classical or Christian history. Within a short time, such cabinets were also being made in Paris, where their makers became known as ébénistes, which remains the French term for a cabinetmaker.

Modern uses are largely restricted to small sizes, particularly in musical instrument making, including piano and harpsichord keys, violin, viola, guitar, and cello fingerboards, endpieces, pegs and chinrests. Traditionally, black piano and harpsichord keys were ebony, and the black pieces in chess sets were made from ebony, with rare boxwood or ivory being used for the white pieces. Modern east Midlands-style lace-making bobbins, also being small, are often made of ebony and look particularly decorative when bound with brass or silver wire. Due to its strength, many handgun grips, and rifle fore-end tips, are made of ebony as well. Many plectrums, or guitar picks, are made from this black wood.

In Dakshina Kannada and Udupi districts of Karnataka (India), the tree is called Karmara in the native Tulu language. Ebony tree forests which once covered large areas of these districts have shrunk significantly due to rapid urbanization. The wood of ebony is used as firewood, as it can burn even in moist conditions.

As a result of unsustainable harvesting, many species yielding ebony are now considered threatened.



Klasifikasi ilmiah
Kerajaan: Plantae
Divisi: Pinophyta
Kelas: Pinopsida
Ordo: Pinales
Famili: Araucariaceae
Genus: Agathis

Genus Agathis, umumnya disebut damar, atau dalam bahasa Maori disebut kauri, adalah genus dari 21 spesies pohon yang berdaun sepanjang tahun dari famili konifer purba Araucariaceae. Meskipun dahulunya menyebar luas selama periode Jurasik, sekarang mereka hanya ditemukan di daerah yang lebih kecil di belahan Bumi selatan. Pohon-pohon ini bercirikan batang yang sangat besar dan percabangan sedikit atau tidak pada beberapa bagian ke atas. Pohon muda biasanya berbentuk kerucut; hanya saat dewasa tajuknya menjadi lebih membulat atau tidak beraturan.

Kulit kayunya lembut dan berwarna abu-abu muda atau cokelat abu-abu, biasanya mengelupas menjadi serpihan-serpihan yang menebal pada pohon yang lebih tua. Struktur cabangnya seringkali horizontal, atau menaik saat lebih besar. Cabang paling bawah seringkali meninggalkan luka cabang melingkar bila mereka tanggal dari batang yang berada lebih di bawah.

Daun muda pada semua spesies Agathis lebih besar daripada daun tua, lebih atau kurang lancip, bermacam-macam bentuknya di antara spesies dari bentuk ovata (membulat telur) hingga lanceolata (panjang, lebar di tengah). Daun tua berlawanan, bentuk elips hingga linier, sangat kasar dan cukup tebal. Daun muda seringkali berwarna merah tembaga, kontras dengan dedaunan musim sebelumnya yang biasanya hijau atau hijau-berserbuk.

Runjung serbuk sari jantan muncul biasanya hanya muncul pada pohon yang lebih besar setelah runjung biji muncul. Runjung biji betina biasanya berkembang pada anak cabang samping yang pendek, menjadi dewasa setelah dua tahun. Bentuknya umumnya oval atau globe.

Biji beberapa spesies diserang oleh ulat dari ngengat Agathiphaga, golongan ngengat yang termasuk paling primitif.


Berbagai damar memberikan beragam resin seperti kopal kauri, kopal Filipina, getah damar.

Kayu Agathis potongannya berpola lurus dan bermutu baik. Kayu itu umum digunakan pada pembuatan gitar rentang menengah, karena sifat resonansinya yang bagus, namun ongkos produksinya murah. Ia juga dipakai untuk beberapa papan permainan igo


Durio zibethinus

Klasifikasi ilmiah
Kerajaan: Plantae
(tidak termasuk) Eudicots
(tidak termasuk) Rosids
Ordo: Malvales
Famili: Malvaceae
Genus: Durio
Spesies: D. zibethinus
Nama binomial
Durio zibethinus

Durian adalah nama tumbuhan tropis yang berasal dari Asia Tenggara, sekaligus nama buahnya yang bisa dimakan. Nama ini diambil dari ciri khas kulit buahnya yang keras dan berlekuk-lekuk tajam sehingga menyerupai duri. Sebutan populernya adalah "raja dari segala buah" (King of Fruit), dan durian adalah buah yang kontroversial. Meskipun banyak yang menyukainya, sebagian yang lain muak dengan aromanya.

Sesungguhnya, tumbuhan dengan nama durian bukanlah spesies tunggal tetapi sekelompok tumbuhan dari marga Durio.[1] Namun demikian, yang dimaksud dengan durian (tanpa imbuhan apa-apa) biasanya adalah Durio zibethinus. Jenis-jenis durian lain yang dapat dimakan dan kadangkala ditemukan di pasar tempatan di Asia Tenggara di antaranya adalah lai (D. kutejensis), kerantungan (D. oxleyanus), durian kura-kura atau kekura (D. graveolens), serta lahung (D. dulcis). Untuk selanjutnya, uraian di bawah ini mengacu kepada D. zibethinus.

Nama-nama lokal

Terdapat banyak nama lokal. Nama terbanyak ditemukan di Kalimantan, yang mengacu pada berbagai varietas dan spesies yang berbeda. Durian di Jawa dikenal sebagai duren (bahasa Jawa, bahasa Betawi) dan kadu (bahasa Sunda). Di Sumatera dikenal sebagai durian dan duren (bahasa Gayo). Di Sulawesi, orang Manado menyebutnya duriang, sementara orang Toraja duliang. Di Pulau Seram bagian timur disebut rulen.

Beberapa bagian tumbuhan terkadang dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan obat tradisional. Akarnya dimanfaatkan sebagai obat demam. Daunnya, dicampur dengan jeringau (Acorus calamus), digunakan untuk menyembuhkan cantengan (infeksi pada kuku). Kulit buahnya untuk mengobati ruam pada kulit (sakit kurap) dan susah buang air besar (sembelit). Kulit buah ini pun biasa dibakar dan abunya digunakan dalam ramuan untuk melancarkan haid dan menggugurkan kandungan. Abu dan air rendaman abu ini juga digunakan sebagai campuran pewarna tradisional.[13]


Tempoyak, durian yang diragikan

Durian terutama dipelihara orang untuk buahnya, yang umumnya dimakan (arilus atau salut bijinya) dalam keadaan segar. Salut biji ini umumnya manis dan sangat bergizi karena mengandung banyak karbohidrat, lemak, protein, dan mineral.[4]

Pada musim raya durian, buah ini dapat dihasilkan dengan berlimpah, terutama di sentra-sentra produksinya di daerah. Secara tradisional, daging buah yang berlebih-lebihan ini biasa diawetkan dengan memasaknya bersama gula menjadi dodol durian (biasa disebut lempok), atau memfermentasikannya menjadi tempoyak. Selanjutnya, tempoyak yang rasanya masam ini biasa menjadi bahan masakan seperti sambal tempoyak, atau untuk campuran memasak ikan.

Durian pun kerap diolah menjadi campuran bahan kue-kue tradisional, seperti gelamai atau jenang. Terkadang, durian dicampurkan dalam hidangan nasi pulut (ketan) bersama dengan santan. Dalam dunia masa kini, durian (atau aromanya) biasa dicampurkan dalam permen, es krim, susu, dan berbagai jenis minuman penyegar lainnya.

Bijinya bisa dimakan sebagai camilan setelah direbus atau dibakar,[4] atau dicampurkan dalam kolak durian. Biji durian yang mentah beracun dan tak dapat dimakan karena mengandung asam lemak siklopropena (cyclopropene).[10] Biji durian mengandung sekitar 27% amilosa.[11] Kuncup daun (pucuk), mahkota bunga, dan buah yang muda dapat dimasak sebagai sayuran.
Beberapa masyarakat di Jawa menggunakan kulit durian yang telah dimakan sebagai pengusir (repellent) nyamuk dengan meletakkannya di sudut ruangan.[14]

Kayu gubalnya berwarna putih dan terasnya kemerah-merahan. Ringan, namun tidak begitu awet dan mudah diserang rayap. Biasa digunakan sebagai perabot rumah, peti-peti pengemas, dan bahan konstruksi ringan di bawah atap, asalkan tidak bersentuhan dengan tanah


Pterospermum javanicum

Klasifikasi ilmiah
Kerajaan: Plantae
Filum: Magnoliophyta
Kelas: Magnoliopsida
Ordo: Malvales
Famili: Malvaceae (s.l.) atau Sterculiaceae
Upafamili: Dombeyoideae
Genus: Pterospermum
Spesies: P. javanicum
Nama binomial
Pterospermum javanicum

Bayur, bayor atau wadang (Pterospermum javanicum) adalah sejenis pohon penghasil kayu pertukangan berkualitas baik. Pohon yang biasa didapati di dataran rendah ini dikenal juga dengan nama-nama lain, seperti bayur, cayur (Sd.); bayur, wayur, wadang, walang (Jw.); phenjur (Md.); dan lain-lain[1]. Juga bolang (Bal.); buli (Slw.); damarsala (NTT); teunggi leuyan (Kal.)[2]. Bayur diketahui menyebar luas di dunia, khususnya di wilayah tropis, mulai dari India bagian selatan, Asia Tenggara, Kepulauan Nusantara, dan juga Amerika Tengah serta Brasil.[3]

Dalam perdagangan, kelompok kayu bayur dari Indonesia juga mencakup beberapa spesies Pterospermum yang lain, terutama P. celebicum dan P. diversifolium. Kayu ini dikenal pula di dunia sebagai bayor, bayok, bayuk atau litak

Tumbuh di tengah kebun kelapa

Pohon besar, tingginya dapat mencapai 45 m dan gemang batangnya 1 m. Pepagan berwarna keabu-abuan, halus hingga memecah dangkal. Ranting-ranting berambut halus. Daun tunggal terletak berseling, bertangkai pendek, 3–6 mm. Helaian daun bundar telur sampai lanset, sekira 4–14 x 2,5–7 cm, dengan ujung meluncip dan pangkal asimetris: sebelah membundar dan sebelahnya menyempit runcing. Sisi atas hijau terang, sisi bawah daun berambut bintang halus kecoklatan, pada pangkal dengan tiga tulang daun.[3]

Perbungaan berupa malai terminal atau di ketiak. Bunga panjang hingga 6 cm, kuning, berambut halus. Buah kotak silindris, 5–13 x 2–5 cm, mula-mula berambut halus kemudian gundul. Bijinya banyak dan bersayap

Bayur adalah penghuni hutan dataran rendah, dan kemudian juga hutan-hutan sekunder, di bawah 1.000 m dpl. Tidak jarang pula dijumpai di hutan-hutan tepi sungai dan hutan pantai. Biji-bijinya memencar dengan bantuan angin. Tumbuh dengan sendirinya di kebun-kebun wanatani yang berdekatan, bayur biasanya dibiarkan hidup hingga besar untuk dipanen kayunya yang berharga.

Meski umum ditemukan pada tanah lembab yang tidak tergenang air, bayur juga tumbuh baik pada tanah-tanah kering di dalam hutan hujan gugur daun di atas tanah liat, tanah pasir atau tanah liat berpasir. Iklim yang disukainya adalah basah hingga kemarau agak kering, dengan tipe curah hujan A-C


Bayur terutama dimanfaatkan kayunya yang dipujikan berkualitas baik, dan karenanya menjadi salah satu jenis kayu penting di luar jati dan jenis-jenis dipterokarpa.[1][3] Kayu bayur kerap digunakan untuk konstruksi bangunan seperti rumah, perahu, dibuat balok dan papan, bahkan juga untuk membuat jembatan. Akan tetapi kayu ini tidak begitu awet, sehingga dianjurkan untuk digunakan hanya di bawah naungan atap dan dihindarkan dari sentuhan dengan tanah. Kayu bayur juga sering dimanfaatkan dalam pembuatan mebel dan perkakas rumah tangga.[1]

Pada masa lalu, kulit kayunya juga diperdagangkan sebagai subal (pengganti) kulit kayu soga (Peltophorum pterocarpum) yang mahal. Kulit kayu bayur ini di pasar disebut sebagai kulit kayu Timor.[1]
[sunting] Sifat-sifat kayu

Kayu teras bayur berwarna merah pucat, merah-coklat muda, hingga keungu-unguan atau semu lembayung. Kayu gubalnya putih kotor hingga kelabu. Berat jenis kayu bayur berkisar antara 0,35–0,70 (rata-rata 0,53), dan dimasukkan ke dalam kelas kuat III. Kayu ini termasuk mudah dikerjakan dengan hasil yang baik; walaupun teksturnya agak kasar, namun permukaan kayu yang dihasilkan umumnya licin dan berkilap. Kayu ini mudah dipelitur, dan mudah dijadikan venir (lembaran tipis bahan kayu lapis).[4]

Dari segi keawetan, bayur berada dalam kelas IV-V (kurang awet); namun daya tahannya terhadap jamur pelapuk kayu termasuk kelas II-III. Dalam pada itu, keterawetannya tergolong sedang sampai mudah diawetkan

Juni 22, 2010


Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Mimosoideae
Tribe: Acacieae
Genus: Acacia

Acacia (pronounced /əˈkeɪʃə/) is a genus of shrubs and trees belonging to the subfamily Mimosoideae of the family Fabaceae, first described in Africa by the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus in 1773. Many non-Australian species tend to be thorny, whereas the majority of Australian Acacias are not. They are pod-bearing, with sap and leaves typically bearing large amounts of tannins. The generic name derives from ακακία (akakia), the name given by early Greek botanist-physician Pedanius Dioscorides (ca. 40-90) to the medicinal tree A. nilotica in his book Materia Medica.[2] This name derives from the Greek word for its characteristic thorns, ακις (akis, thorn).[3] The species name nilotica was given by Linnaeus from this tree's best-known range along the Nile river.

Acacias are also known as thorntrees, whistling thorns or wattles, including the yellow-fever acacia and umbrella acacias.

Until 2005, there were thought to be roughly 1300 species of acacia worldwide, about 960 of them native to Australia, with the remainder spread around the tropical to warm-temperate regions of both hemispheres, including Europe, Africa, southern Asia, and the Americas. However, the genus was then divided into five, with the name Acacia retained for the Australian species, and most of the species outside Australia divided into Vachellia and Senegalia.

Acacia pycnantha
Acacia berlandieri
Acacia smallii

The genus Acacia is evidently not monophyletic. This discovery has led to the breaking up of Acacia into 5 new genera as discussed in: List of Acacia species. In common parlance, the term "acacia" is occasionally misapplied to species of the genus Robinia, which also belongs in the pea family. Robinia pseudoacacia, an American species locally known as Black Locust, is sometimes called "false acacia" in cultivation in the United Kingdom.
[edit] Geography

The southernmost species in the genus are Acacia dealbata (Silver Wattle), Acacia longifolia (Coast Wattle or Sydney Golden Wattle), Acacia mearnsii (Black Wattle), and Acacia melanoxylon (Blackwood), reaching 43°30' S in Tasmania, Australia, while Acacia caven (Espinillo Negro) reaches nearly as far south in northeastern Chubut Province of Argentina. Australian species are usually called wattles, while African and American species tend to be known as acacias.
Acacia retinodes

Acacia albida, Acacia tortilis and Acacia iraqensis can be found growing wild in the Sinai desert and the Jordan valley. It is found in the savanna vegetation of the tropical continental climate. It grows wild in Montserrat West Indies; there it is locally referred to as 'cusha.'
[edit] Description

The leaves of acacias are compound pinnate in general. In some species, however, more especially in the Australian and Pacific islands species, the leaflets are suppressed, and the leaf-stalks (petioles) become vertically flattened, and serve the purpose of leaves. These are known as phyllodes. The vertical orientation of the phyllodes protects them from intense sunlight, as with their edges towards the sky and earth they do not intercept light so fully as horizontally placed leaves. A few species (such as Acacia glaucoptera) lack leaves or phyllodes altogether, but possess instead cladodes, modified leaf-like photosynthetic stems functioning as leaves.
Acacia dealbata

The small flowers have five very small petals, almost hidden by the long stamens, and are arranged in dense globular or cylindrical clusters; they are yellow or cream-colored in most species, whitish in some, even purple (Acacia purpureapetala) or red (Acacia leprosa Scarlet Blaze). Acacia flowers can be distinguished from those of a large related genus, Albizia, by their stamens which are not joined at the base. Also, unlike individual Mimosa flowers, those of Acacia have more than 10 stamens.[4]

The plants often bear spines, especially those species growing in arid regions. These sometimes represent branches which have become short, hard and pungent, or sometimes leaf-stipules. Acacia armata is the Kangaroo-thorn of Australia and Acacia erioloba is the Camelthorn of Africa.

Acacia seeds can be difficult to germinate. Research has found that immersing the seeds in various temperatures (usually around 80 °C) and manual seed coat chipping can improve yields to approximately 80 percent.[5]
[edit] Symbiosis
Acacia collinsii Thorns

In the Central American Acacia sphaerocephala, Acacia cornigera, and Acacia collinsii (collectively known as the bullthorn acacias), the large thorn-like stipules are hollow and afford shelter for several species of Pseudomyrmex ants, which feed on a secretion of sap on the leaf-stalk and small, lipid-rich food-bodies at the tips of the leaflets called Beltian bodies. In return, the ants add protection to the plant against herbivores.[6] Some species of ants will also fight off competing plants around the acacia, cutting off the offending plant's leaves with their jaws and ultimately killing it. Other associated ant species appear to do nothing to benefit their hosts.

Similar mutualisms with ants occur on Acacia trees in Africa, such as the Whistling Thorn acacia. The acacias provide shelter for ants in the thorns and nectar in extrafloral nectaries for their symbiotic ants such as Crematogaster mimosae. In turn, the ants protect the plant by attacking large mammalian herbivores and stem-boring beetles that damage the plant.
[edit] Pests

In Australia, Acacia species are sometimes used as food plants by the larvae of hepialid moths of the genus Aenetus including A. ligniveren. These burrow horizontally into the trunk then vertically down. Other Lepidoptera larvae which have been recorded feeding on Acacia include Brown-tail, Endoclita malabaricus and Turnip Moth. The leaf-mining larvae of some bucculatricid moths also feed on Acacia: Bucculatrix agilis feeds exclusively on Acacia horrida and Bucculatrix flexuosa feeds exclusively on Acacia nilotica.

Acacias contain a number of organic compounds that defend them from pests and grazing animals.[7]
[edit] Uses
[edit] Food uses
Acacia seed pods, also known as Guajes, served as part of a botana in Oaxaca, Mexico.

Acacia seeds are often used for food and a variety of other products.

In Burma, Laos and Thailand, the feathery shoots of Acacia pennata (common name cha-om, ชะอม and su pout ywet in Burmese) are used in soups, curries, omelettes, and stir-fries.

Honey made by bees using the acacia flower as forage is considered a delicacy, appreciated for its mild flowery taste, soft running texture and glass-like appearance. Acacia honey is one of the few honeys which does not crystallize.[8]
In Mexico the seeds are known as Guajes. Guajes or huajes are the flat, green pods of an acacia tree. The pods are sometimes light green or deep red in color—both taste the same. Guaje seeds are about the size of a small lima bean and are eaten raw with guacamole, sometimes cooked and made into a sauce. They can also be made into fritters. The ground seeds are used to impart a slightly garlicy flavor to a mole called guaxmole (huaxmole). The dried seeds may be toasted and salted and eaten as a snack referred to as "cacalas". Purchase whole long pods fresh or dried at Mexican specialty markets.

The first-known predominantly vegetarian spider Bagheera kiplingi, which is found in Central America and Mexico, was first documented and filmed in 2009 feeding from the tips of the acacia plants which are known as Beltian bodies which contain high concentrations of protein. All other 40,000 known species of spider's diets are mainly believed to be carnivorous.

Acacia is listed as an ingredient in Sun Drop, Fresca, a citrus soft drink, RC Cola, Barq's root beer, Full Throttle Unleaded Energy Drink, Strawberry-Lemonade Powerade[9] as well as in Läkerol pastille candies, Altoids mints,Langer's Pineapple coconut Juice and Wrigley's Eclipse chewing gum.
[edit] Gum

Various species of acacia yield gum. True gum arabic is the product of Acacia senegal, abundant in dry tropical West Africa from Senegal to northern Nigeria.

Acacia arabica is the gum-Arabic tree of India, but yields a gum inferior to the true gum-Arabic.
Acacia covenyi
[edit] Medicinal uses

Many Acacia species have important uses in traditional medicine. Most of the uses have been shown to have a scientific basis since chemical compounds found in the various species have medicinal effects.[citation needed]

In Ayurvedic medicine, Acacia nilotica is considered a remedy that is helpful for treating premature ejaculation. A 19th century Ethiopian medical text describes a potion made from an Ethiopian species of Acacia (known as grar) mixed with the root of the tacha, then boiled, as a cure for rabies.[10]

An astringent medicine high in tannins, called catechu or cutch, is procured from several species, but more especially from Acacia catechu, by boiling down the wood and evaporating the solution so as to get an extract.[11]
[edit] Ornamental uses

A few species are widely grown as ornamentals in gardens; the most popular perhaps is Acacia dealbata (Silver Wattle), with its attractive glaucous to silvery leaves and bright yellow flowers; it is erroneously known as "mimosa" in some areas where it is cultivated, through confusion with the related genus Mimosa.

Another ornamental acacia is Acacia xanthophloea (Fever Tree). Southern European florists use Acacia baileyana, Acacia dealbata, Acacia pycnantha and Acacia retinodes as cut flowers and the common name there for them is mimosa.[12]

Ornamental species of acacia are also used by homeowners and landscape architects for home security. The sharp thorns of some species deter unauthorized persons from entering private properties, and may prevent break-ins if planted under windows and near drainpipes. The aesthetic characteristics of acacia plants, in conjunction with their home security qualities, makes them a considerable alternative to artificial fences and walls.
[edit] Paints

The ancient Egyptians used Acacia in paints.[13]
[edit] Perfume
Acacia farnesiana

Acacia farnesiana is used in the perfume industry due to its strong fragrance. The use of Acacia as a fragrance dates back centuries. In the Bible, burning of acacia wood as a form of incense is mentioned several times.
[edit] Symbolism and ritual

The Acacia is used as a symbol in Freemasonry, to represent purity and endurance of the soul, and as funerary symbolism signifying resurrection and immortality. The tree gains its importance from the description of the burial of Hiram Abiff, the builder of King Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem.

Several parts (mainly bark, root and resin) of Acacia are used to make incense for rituals. Acacia is used in incense mainly in India, Nepal, Tibet and China. Smoke from Acacia bark is thought to keep demons and ghosts away and to put the gods in a good mood. Roots and resin from Acacia are combined with rhododendron, acorus, cytisus, salvia and some other components of incense. Both people and elephants like an alcoholic beverage made from acacia fruit.[14] According to Easton's Bible Dictionary, the Acacia tree may be the “burning bush” (Exodus 3:2) which Moses encountered in the desert.[15] Also, when God gave Moses the instructions for building the Tabernacle, he said to "make an ark of acacia wood" and "make a table of acacia wood" (Exodus 25:10 & 23, Revised Standard Version)

In Russia, Italy and other countries it is customary to present women with yellow mimosas (among other flowers) on International Women's Day (March 8). These "mimosas" are actually from Acacia dealbata (Silver Wattle).
[edit] Tannin
A bottle of tannic acid.

The bark of various Australian species, known as wattles, is very rich in tannin and forms an important article of export; important species include Acacia pycnantha (Golden Wattle), Acacia decurrens (Tan Wattle), Acacia dealbata (Silver Wattle) and Acacia mearnsii (Black Wattle).
Tannin Content of Various Acacia Species

Dried Leaves

Seed Pods
Tannins [%]

Tannins [%]

Tannins [%]
Acacia albida

Acacia cavenia 32%[17]
Acacia dealbata 19.1%[18]
Acacia decurrens 37-40%[18]
Acacia farnesiana 23%[18]
Acacia mearnsii 25-35%[16]
Acacia melanoxylon 20%[17]
Acacia nilotica 18-23%*[16]
Acacia penninervis 18%[17]
Acacia pycnantha 30-45%[17] 15-16%[17]
Acacia saligna 21.5%[18]

Notes: * - Inner bark

Black Wattle is grown in plantations in South Africa. Most Australian acacia species introduced to South Africa have become an enormous problem, due to their naturally aggressive propagation. The pods of Acacia nilotica (under the name of neb-neb), and of other African species are also rich in tannin and used by tanners.
[edit] Wood
Acacia koa Wood
Acacia tree near the end of its range in the Negev Desert of southern Israel.

Some Acacia species are valuable as timber, such as Acacia melanoxylon (Blackwood) from Australia, which attains a great size; its wood is used for furniture, and takes a high polish; and Acacia omalophylla (Myall Wood, also Australian), which yields a fragrant timber used for ornaments. Acacia seyal is thought to be the Shittah-tree of the Bible, which supplied shittim-wood. According to the Book of Exodus, this was used in the construction of the Ark of the Covenant. Acacia koa from the Hawaiian Islands and Acacia heterophylla from Réunion island are both excellent timber trees. Depending on abundance and regional culture, some Acacia species (e.g. Acacia fumosa), are traditionally used locally as firewoods.[19]
Acacia heterophylla Wood
Approximate wood densities of various acacia species

Heartwood Density

Sapwood Density


Acacia acuminata

Acacia amythethophylla

Acacia catechu

Acacia confusa

Acacia erioloba

Acacia galpinii

Acacia goetzii
Acacia karoo

Acacia leucophloea

Acacia melanoxylon

Acacia mellifera subsp. mellifera

Acacia nilotica


Acacia nilotica subsp. adstringens

Acacia nilotica subsp. nilotica


Acacia polyacantha subsp. campylacantha

Acacia sieberiana

In Indonesia (mainly in Sumatra) and in Malaysia (mainly in Sarawak) plantations of Acacia mangium are being established to supply pulpwood to the paper industry.
[edit] Land Reclamation

Acacia can be planted for erosion control, especially after mining or construction damage.[24]
[edit] Ecological invasion

For the same reasons it is favored as an erosion-control plant, with its easy spreading and resilience, some varieties of acacia, namely Acacia mearnsii, are potentially an invasive species. Introduced worldwide it has become an invasive plant which is taking over grasslands and the abandoned agricultural areas, especially in moderate coastal and island regions where mild climate propagates its spreading. Australian/New Zealand Weed Risk Assessment gives it a "high risk, score of 15" rating and it is considered one of the world's 100 most invasive species.[25] Extensive ecological studies should be performed before further introduction of acacia varieties as this fast-growing plant, once introduced, spreads fast and is extremely difficult to eradicate.
[edit] Phytochemistry of Acacia
[edit] Alkaloids
Egyptian goddess Isis

As mentioned previously, Acacias contain a number of organic compounds that defend them from pests and grazing animals.[7] Many of these compounds are psychoactive in humans. The alkaloids found in Acacias include dimethyltryptamine (DMT), 5-methoxy-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) and N-methyltryptamine (NMT). The plant leaves, stems and/or roots are sometimes made into a brew together with some MAOI-containing plant and consumed orally for healing, ceremonial or religious uses. Egyptian mythology has associated the acacia tree with characteristics of the tree of life (see the article on the Myth of Osiris and Isis).
Acacias Known to Contain Psychoactive Alkaloids
Acacia acuminata
Up to 1.5% alkaloids, mainly consisting of tryptamine in leaf[26]
Acacia adunca
β-methyl-phenethylamine, 2.4% in leaves[27]
Alpina mueller.jpg
Acacia alpina
Active principles in leaf[28]
Acacia aneura blossom.jpg
Acacia aneura
Ash used in Pituri.[29] Ether extracts about 2-6% of the dried leaf mass.[30] Not known if psychoactive per se.
Acacia angustissima usgs.png
Acacia angustissima
β-methyl-phenethylamine,[31] NMT and DMT in leaf (1.1-10.2 ppm)[32]
Acacia aroma
Tryptamine alkaloids.[33] Significant amount of tryptamine in the seeds.[34]
Starr 031013-8001 Acacia auriculiformis.jpg
Acacia auriculiformis
5-MeO-DMT in stem bark[35]
Acacia baileyana.jpg
Acacia baileyana
0.02% tryptamine and β-carbolines, in the leaf, Tetrahydroharman[28][36][37]
Acacia beauverdiana
Psychoactive[38] Ash used in Pituri.[29]
Acacia berlandieri
DMT, amphetamines, mescaline, nicotine[39]
Acacia catechu
DMT[40] and other tryptamines in leaf, bark
Acacia caven
Acacia chundra
DMT and other tryptamines in leaf, bark
Acacia colei
Acacia complanata
0.3% alkaloids in leaf and stem, almost all N-methyl-tetrahydroharman, with traces of tetrahydroharman, some of tryptamine[42][43][44]
Acacia concinna Blanco2.374.png
Acacia concinna
Starr 050107-2872 Acacia confusa.jpg
Acacia confusa
DMT & NMT in leaf, stem & bark 0.04% NMT and 0.02% DMT in stem.[28] Also N,N-dimethyltryptamine N-oxide[46]
Acacia constricta flower.jpg
Acacia constricta
Acacia coriacea
Ash used in Pituri.[29][47] Not known if psychoactive.
Acacia cornigera
Psychoactive,[47] Tryptamines[14]
Acacia cultriformis leaves.jpg
Acacia cultriformis
Tryptamine, in the leaf, stem[28] and seeds.[34] Phenethylamine in leaf and seeds[34]
Acacia cuthbertsonii
Acacia delibrata
Acacia falcata
Psychoactive,[38] but less than 0.02% alkaloids[37]
Acacia farnesiana
Traces of 5-MeO-DMT[48] in fruit. β-methyl-phenethylamine, flower.[49] Ether extracts about 2-6% of the dried leaf mass.[30] Alkaloids are present in the bark[50] and leaves.[51] Amphetamines and mescaline also found in tree.[14]
Acacia filiciana
Added to Pulque, but not known if psychoactive[47]
Acacia floribunda
Tryptamine, phenethylamine,[52] in flowers[34] other tryptamines, phenethylamines[53]
Acacia greggii thorns.jpg
Acacia greggii
N-methyl-β-phenethylamine,[31] phenethylamine[7]
Acacia harpophylla
Phenethylamine, hordenine at a ratio of 2:3 in dried leaves, 0.6% total[27]
Acacia holoserica
Hordenine, 1.2% in bark[27]
Acacia horrida
Acacia implexa
Acacia jurema
Acacia karroo2.jpg
Acacia karroo
Acacia kempeana
Used in Pituri, but not known if psychoactive.[47]
Acacia kettlewelliae
1.5[27]-1.88%[55] alkaloids, 92% consisting of phenylethylamine.[27] 0.9% N-methyl-2-

phenylethylamine found a different time.[27]
Acacia laeta
DMT, in the leaf[28]
Acacia lingulata
Used in Pituri, but not known if psychoactive.[47]
Acacia longifolia
0.2% tryptamine in bark, leaves, some in flowers, phenylethylamine in flowers,[52] 0.2% DMT in plant.[56] Histamine alkaloids.[37]
Acacia longifolia
var. sophorae
Tryptamine in leaves, bark[34]
Acacia macradenia
Acacia maidenii.jpg
Acacia maidenii
0.6% NMT and DMT in about a 2:3 ratio in the stem bark, both present in leaves[28]
Starr 031013-8002 Acacia mangium.jpg
Acacia mangium
Acacia melanoxylon branch.jpg
Acacia melanoxylon
DMT, in the bark and leaf,[57] but less than 0.02% total alkaloids[37]
Acacia mellifera 3D-Modell.jpg
Acacia mellifera
DMT, in the leaf[28]
Babool (Acacia nilotica) leaves & spines at Hodal W IMG 1251.jpg
Acacia nilotica
DMT, in the leaf[28]
Acacia nilotica
subsp. adstringens
Psychoactive, DMT in the leaf
Acacia obtusifolia
Tryptamine, DMT, NMT, other tryptamines,[58] 0.4-0.5% in dried bark, 0.07% in branch tips.[59]
Acacia oerfota
Less than 0.1% DMT in leaf,[36][60] NMT
Acacia penninervis
Acacia phlebophylla.jpg
Acacia phlebophylla
0.3% DMT in leaf, NMT[28]
Starr 020911-0004 Acacia podalyriifolia.jpg
Acacia podalyriaefolia
Tryptamine in the leaf,[28] 0.5% to 2% DMT in fresh bark, phenethylamine, trace amounts[52]
Acacia polycantha.png
Acacia polyacantha
DMT in leaf[28] and other tryptamines in leaf, bark
Acacia polyacantha
ssp. campylacantha
Less than 0.2% DMT in leaf, NMT; DMT and other tryptamines in leaf, bark[61]
Acacia prominens
Phenylethylamine, β-methyl-phenethylamine[27][52]
Acacia pruinocarpa
Ash used in Pituri.[29][47] Not known if psychoactive.
Acacia pycnantha Golden Wattle.jpg
Acacia pycnantha
Ash used in Pituri,[47] but less than 0.02% total alkaloids.[37] Not known if psychoactive.
Acacia melanoxylon2.jpg
Acacia retinodes
DMT, NMT,[62] nicotine,[14] but less than 0.02% total alkaloids found[37]
Acacia rigidula.jpg
Acacia rigidula
DMT, NMT, tryptamine, amphetamines, mescaline, nicotine and others[63]
Acacia roemeriana 01nsh.jpg
Acacia roemeriana
Acacia salicina
Ash used in Pituri.[29][47] Not known if psychoactive.
Acacia sassa
Acacia schaffneri
β-methyl-phenethylamine, Phenethylamine[7] Amphetamines and mescaline also found.[14]
Acacia schottii
Acacia senegal
Less than 0.1% DMT in leaf,[28] NMT, other tryptamines. DMT in plant,[49] DMT in bark.[34]
Acacia seyal
DMT, in the leaf.[28] Ether extracts about 1-7% of the dried leaf mass.[30]
Acacia sieberiana
DMT, in the leaf[28]
Acacia simplex.jpg
Acacia simplex
DMT and NMT, in the leaf, stem and trunk bark, 0.81% DMT in bark, MMT[28][64]
Acacia taxensis
Acacia tortilis
DMT, NMT, and other tryptamines[58]
Acacia vestita
Tryptamine, in the leaf and stem,[28] but less than 0.02% total alkaloids[37]
Acacia victoriae
Tryptamines, 5-MeO-alkyltryptamine[34]
[edit] List of acacia species having little or no alkaloids in the material sampled:[37]

0% \le C \le 0.02%, C...Concentration of Alkaloids [%]

* Acacia acinacea
* Acacia baileyana
* Acacia decurrens
* Acacia dealbata
* Acacia mearnsii
* Acacia drummondii
* Acacia elata
* Acacia falcata
* Acacia leprosa
* Acacia linearis
* Acacia melanoxylon
* Acacia pycnantha
* Acacia retinodes
* Acacia saligna
* Acacia stricta
* Acacia verticillata
* Acacia vestita

[edit] Cyanogenic glycosides

Nineteen different species of Acacia in the Americas contain cyanogenic glycosides, which, if exposed to an enzyme which specifically splits glycosides, can release hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in the acacia "leaves."[65] This sometimes results in the poisoning death of livestock.

If fresh plant material spontaneously produces 200 ppm or more HCN, then it is potentially toxic. This corresponds to about 7.5 μmol HCN per gram of fresh plant material. It turns out that, if acacia "leaves" lack the specific glycoside-splitting enzyme, then they may be less toxic than otherwise, even those containing significant quantities of cyanic glycosides.[37]

Some Acacia species containing cyanogens:

* Acacia erioloba
* Acacia cunninghamii
* Acacia obtusifolia
* Acacia sieberiana
* Acacia sieberiana var. woodii[66]

[edit] Species

There are over 1,300 species of Acacia. See List of Acacia species for a more complete listing.
[edit] Famous acacia

Perhaps the most famous acacia is the Arbre du Ténéré in Niger. The reason for the tree's fame is that it used to be the most isolated tree in the world, approximately 400 km (249 mi) from any other tree. The tree was knocked down by a truck driver in 1973.
[edit] Identification gallery
[edit] Flowers
Acacia aneura

Acacia catechu

Acacia baileyana

Acacia berlandieri
Acacia confusa

Acacia constricta, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

Acacia covenyi

Acacia dealbata
Acacia denticulosa

Acacia drummodii

Acacia erioloba Sossusvlei, Namibia

Acacia fimbriata Australian National Botanic Gardens, Canberra
Acacia heterophylla

Acacia longifolia

Acacia melanoxylon Nazaré, Portugal

Acacia saligna Side, Turkey
Acacia schinoides Australian National Botanic Gardens

Acacia tetragonophylla Geelong Botanic Gardens, Victoria, Australia

Acacia pennata in Talakona forest, in Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh, India

Acacia pennata at Ananthagiri Hills, in Rangareddy district of Andhra Pradesh, India.
[edit] Bark
Acacia aneura Bark

Acacia auriculiformis

Acacia berlandieri Bark

Acacia collinsii Bark
Acacia confusa Bark, Hawaii, USA

Acacia dealbata

Acacia decurrens

Acacia erioloba
Acacia estrophiolata

Acacia greggii Bark

Acacia heterophylla

Acacia pennata trunk in Talakona forest, in Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh, India.
[edit] Foliage
Acacia catechu

Acacia collinsii Foliage

Acacia concinna Foliage

Acacia denticulosa Foliage
Acacia karroo Foliage

Acacia leprosa Foliage

Acacia pennata in Talakona forest, in Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh, India.

Acacia pennata at Ananthagiri Hills, in Rangareddy district of Andhra Pradesh, India.
[edit] Seed pods
Acacia aneura

Acacia catechu

Acacia confusa

Acacia constricta
Acacia dealbata

Acacia heterophylla

Acacia melanoxylon
[edit] Seeds
Acacia baileyana

Acacia berlandieri

Acacia confusa

Acacia constricta
Acacia cyclops

Acacia dealbata

Acacia decurrens

Acacia farnesiana
Acacia greggii

Acacia longifolia

Acacia mearnsii

Acacia melanoxylon
Acacia pycnantha

Acacia rigidula

Acacia tortuosa
[edit] Thorns
Acacia catechu

Acacia collinsii

Acacia cornigera

Acacia horrida
Acacia farnesiana var. farnesiana

Acacia pennata in Talakona forest, in Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh, India.
[edit] Tree
Acacia aneura

Acacia berlandieri

Acacia confusa

Acacia constricta
Acacia dealbata

Acacia heterophylla

Acacia koa

Acacia leprosa
[edit] Wood
Acacia koa

Acacia heterophylla

Acacia schaffneri
[edit] See also


Calophyllum / Bintangor
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Clusiaceae
Subfamily: Kielmeyeroideae
Tribe: Calophylleae
Genus: Calophyllum

Calophyllum is a flowering plant genus of around 180-200 species of tropical evergreen trees in the family Clusiaceae. The generic name is derived from the Greek words καλος (kalos), meaning "beautiful", and φυλλον (phullon), meaning "leaf." Its members are native to Australasia, Madagascar, Eastern Africa, South and Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, the Caribbean and Latin America. The common names, as well as commercial names, for these trees are:

* Teitai (in Kiribati),
* Feta'u (in Tonga),[1]
* Nyamplung or Kosambi (in Indonesia)
* Bintangor tree (in Malaysia) and
* Poon tree (in India),
* Guanandi, Jacareuba or Santa Maria (in Latin America).


These species grow in a wide number of habitats, from ridges in mountain forests to coastal swamps, lowland forest and even coral cays. They are large hardwoods, attaining 30 m in height and 0.8 m in diameter. It presents shiny and leathery leaves. The tree bark is grey or white and decorticates in large thin strips. The wood is light in weight, the heartwood pink-red, or almost brown, while the sapwood varies from species to species, often from yellow, brown (often with pink tints) to orange. Species occurring in Papua New Guinea are often buttressed.
[edit] Uses

Several species have been found to contain naturally occurring calanolides in various quantities.[clarification needed]

The lightweight hardwood of these species is used in boatmaking for masts and spars, as well as in luxury furniture and flooring.

For medicinal (folk medicine and ethnopharmacology) uses of leaves, oil from nuts and crost balsam,[clarification needed] for HIV and AIDS, see calanolide A and calanolide B,[2] Jacareubin,[3] Tamanu oil,[4] and Calophyllic acid.[5] For medicinal use from their resin, see tacamahac.

Juni 20, 2010

Eusideroxylon Zwageri ( Kayu Ulin)

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Magnoliids
Order: Laurales
Family: Lauraceae
Genus: Eusideroxylon
Species: E. zwageri
Binomial name
Eusideroxylon zwageri
Teysm. & Binnend.

Eusideroxylon zwageri, is one of the four species of the genus. The other three species it may be confused with are Eusideroxylon borneense, Eusideroxylon melagangai and Eusideroxylon lauriflora. It is known colloquially in English as Borneo ironwood and occasionally bilian ironwood or bilian. Other Common Names include Tambulian Tagalog, kayu ulin and belian Indonesian and belian and its corruption in modern Malaysian: bilian. In French it is known as: Bois de fer and in German: Borneo Eisenholz. Some less common names include: Im muk, Ong len (both Chinese); Tulian, Tebelian, Sakian, Biliran: all regional vernacular corruptions of belian and tambulian. Sulawesi shipbuilders often refer to the wood as kayo bado (Modern Indonesian: kayu bada: "inexpressible ([sic wonderful] wood") (or kayo sappu: "broom wood").[1]

It is endemic to Brunei; Flores, Java, Kalimantan and Sumatra in Indonesia; the Sabah and Sarawak states of Malaysia; and the Sulu archipelago of the Philippines[2]. It is threatened by habitat loss. The government of Indonesia and the state government of Sarawak have formally banned the export of this species. Illegal smuggling especially by migrant Chinese continues to be major problem.[3]

This very important tree is one of the most durable and heaviest timbers in the world. It is now threatened by over-exploitation, lack of regeneration and difficulties in cultivation.[4]

* 1 Appearance and Growth
* 2 Habitat and Distribution
* 3 Silviculture
* 4 Properties
* 5 Usage
* 6 Endangered Status
* 7 Trade
* 8 Malaysian Timber Theft
* 9 Indigenous Beliefs
* 10 References
* 11 Additional References
* 12 External links

[edit] Appearance and Growth

Eusideroxylon zwageri henceforth referred to as belian, is a slow growing tall evergreen tree with a straight bole (usually host to Cassytha a parasitic vine with leaves reduced to scales up to half of the tree height. It is slightly fluted at the base, up to 150–220 cm in diameter. The trunk has many small, rounded buttresses that give the base and elephant-foot like appearance. Belian can grow to attain over 1000 years of age. Common commercially exploitable trees attains a height of 30 or more metres (100 ft) with trunk diameters of exploitable trees up to 92 cm (36 inches). Protected trees are towering giants of the forest attaining a height of up to 50 metres and a diameter of 220 cm- though height is routinely reduced by lightening strike.[5]
The belian trees' leaves are dark green, simple, leathery, elliptical to ovate, 14-18 long (5.5-7.5 inches) and 5–11 cm wide (2-4 inches), and are alternate, rarely whorled or opposite, without stipules and petiolate . The Leaf blade is unlobed (unlobed or lobed in Sassafras ) the margins entire and occasionally with domatia (crevices or hollows serving as lodging for mites) in axils of main lateral veins (in Cinnamomum ).[6]
Inflorescences in axils of leaves or deciduous bracts include, panicles (rarely heads), racemes , compound cymes, or pseudoumbels (spikes in Cassytha ), sometimes enclosed by decussate bracts.[7] The flowers of the belian are bisexual only or staminate and bisexual on some plants, pistillate and bisexual on others. The flowers are usually yellow to greenish or white, rarely reddish. The hypanthium are well-developed, resembling calyx tube tepals and the stamens perigynous. The tepals are in groups of 6 to 9, in 2 or 3 whorls of 3 and sepaloid. If tepals are unequal will then usually possess 3 outer smaller rather than inner 3. This is occasionally absent in Litsea. The stamens are in groups of 3n and in whorls of 3, but 1 or more whorls frequently staminodial or absent. The stamens of the third whorl has 2 glands near base, There are 2-4 locular, with locules opening by valves.[8]
There is one pistil and one carpellate. Thre is one locular ovary of placentation basal; one ovule; stigma subsessile , discoid or capitate. The fruits drupes, drupe borne on pedicel with or without persistent tepals at base, or seated in ± deeply cup-shaped receptacle (cupule), or enclosed in accrescent floral tube . In the fruit there is one seed with endosperm absent. The fruits are poisonous to humans but have medicinal properties.[9]

The parasite vine, Cassytha is sometimes placed in its own family, Cassythaceae.
[edit] Habitat and Distribution

It grows in lowland primary and secondary forest up to 500m altitude. It prefers well-drained soils, sandy to clay-loam, sometimes limestone. It is commonly found along rivers and adjacent hills. It requires an average annual rainfall of 2500–4000 mm. It occurs scattered or is gregarious.[10] Seedlings require some shade, while older trees need plenty of light.[11] It can be found in valleys and on hillsides and even on low ridges when soil moisture is sufficient at elevations between sea level and 625 m. The standing timber volume of trees with a diameter of over 50 cm may be as much as 90-112 m3.[12]
It is native and endemic to occurs Indonesia: in Java and eastern and southern Sumatra and all areas suitable in Kalimantan; Bangka, Belitung, Sabah and Sarawak of Malaysia (also known as Northern Borneo) and the Sulu archipelago and Palawan of the Philippines.
[edit] Silviculture

The belian has a very slow growth rate of mean radial growth of 0.058 cm per year. The belian is a canopy species in primary forests. The species is considered unsuitable for large-scale plantations due to slow growth and inadequate seed and seedling supply. Manual selection of trees in natural forests is common.[13][14]
[edit] Properties

The heartwood when cut is coloured light brown to almost bright yellow. During the aging process the heartwood darkens to deep reddish brown, very dark brown or almost black. The sapwood is bright yellow, when cut and darkens slightly. The wood texture is fine and even, with a straight grain or only slightly interlocked. The timber retains a pleasant lemon odour. This odour along with the woods' natural high lustre make it prized by cabinet-makers and fine furniture craftsmen.
The wood is dense (0.85 – 1.1 g/cm³)? and texture is moderately fine to fine and even. Also attractive to users is the belian's resistance to insects, bacteria, fungi and marine borers.[15] The wood has anti-bacterial properties (for local medicinal use)[16] Vessels are diffuse-porous, medium-sized and generally evenly distributed, arranged in short radial rows (2-3 vessels). Moderate abundancy of aliform paratracheal parenchyma. Growth rings boundaries are indistinct or absent. Tyloses are often present.[17]
The [belian has a radial shrinkage rate of 2-4.5% and an tangential shrinkage rate of tangential 4.5-7.5%. The timber dries slowly and care is needed to avoid checks and splits
The belian wood is famed for its' easy working characteristics, despite high density. The wood planes, bores and turns cleanly producing smooth and often lustrous surfaces. Nailing requires pre-bores prior to nailing. Saw blades and cutting instruments are only moderate blunted during working the timber. Apparently, belian wood is difficult to glue with synthetic resins.[18]
Durability: heartwood is rated as very durable – immune to termite attack; service life of up to 100 years in direct soil contact and more than 20 years for marine work in tropical waters has been reported
[edit] Usage

Due to the excellent resistance to bacterial, fungal, insect and marine borer attack the wood is highly prized for many outdoor uses. Additionally, the belian wood's high density and easy workability lend it to particularly desirability in maritime structures, dock construction and ship building, especially Indonesia's famous pinisi sail-boat.[19] Common local uses include: House construction, door construction, water butts and troughs, boat building (Pinisi), tools, tool handles, talisman, jewellery, medicinal slivers(for wounds, cuts, abrasions, bites and tooth-ache/infection), bridges, blowpipes? and spear shafts.
Internationally, it is renowned for heavy construction such as a buffer between transportation trailers and heavy steel fabrications (such as boilers, pressure vessels, reactors and many others). It is also frequently found in dry docks as a timber to separate the hull of ships from the steel supporting stands. Other uses include use in boats and ships, industrial flooring, roofing (as shingles), fine indoor and outdoor furniture, coffin wood (esteemed by Chinese due to ability to withstand rot and insect attack) and tool handles (especially those exposed to continual high impact (belian wood does not splinter and thus injure hands, eyes or endanger the operator on catastrophic failure) such as shovels, axes, block splitters, sledge hammers, heavy mallets, demolition hammers, mattocks, picks, hoes] and hammers). Some expert cabinet-makers treasure a belian-headed carpenter's mallet as an excellent intermediate density hammer face between the usual wood and a metal one- and is able to quite easily tap or "whack" stubborn highly-polished metal fixtures without damage to the face or the fixture.
Other sources indicate belian often used for marine constructions such as pilings, wharfs, docks, sluices, dams, ships, bridges, but also used for power line poles, masts, roof shingles and house posts and to a minor extent as frame, board, heavy duty flooring, railway sleepers, fencing material, furniture etc.
[edit] Endangered Status

The decline of berlian which was first noted in 1955. Browne (1955) stated: “Our surviving supplies of Belian are by no means very large and undoubtedly dwindling.” Population reduction has been noted in the following regions: Kalimantan, Sumatra, Sabah, Sarawak and the Philippines[20]. IUCN has categorized it Vulnerable A1cd and A2cd[21]. CITES listed II Bi (unsustainable level of exploitation from the wild for international trade)[22]. Regeneration in logged-over forests is limited.[23][24]
The species is threatened by over-exploitation, predominantly by illegal migrant loggers. Current demand for the timber is fueled for its esteem among Chinese as a coffin wood (as it is resistant to insect and rot). Included in list of vanishing timber species of the Philippines and considered almost extinct in Sabah. In Java and Sumateera it exists solely in National Parks. Currently the situation is assessed as a serious depletion of stands. The species is only planted on a small scale because the supply of seeds and seedlings is inadequate. The world-famous ITB Bogor Agricultural Institute (Insitut Pertanian Bogor)( os currently breeding a generation of plants more hardy than the wild harvested seeds [25][26]
[edit] Trade

Indonesia has a total prohibition on the export of belian and cutting is restricted to trees less than 60 cm diameter measured at breast height. In Sarawak export in any form is not allowed without special permission. Sabah still allows export.
[edit] Malaysian Timber Theft

The bulk of all belian wood is found in Kalimantan, bordering the Malaysian states of almost exhausted Sabah and essentially extinct tracts of Sarawak[27] Motivated by the high price per cubic metre, Malaysian illegal loggers have been documented felling, transporting via river and river barge Indonesian protected trees into bordering Sabah[28].
In addition to the issue surrounding the sovereignty of the Andaman Islands and continuing spats over the delineation of Malaysian-Indonesian borders- this outraged the Indonesian public, who had been educated to conserve and protect this tree on pain of severe penalty rioted in protest in Jakarta and Pontianak and publicly called for the resurrection of the Crush Malaysia policy known as Ganyang Melayu albeit terming Ganyang Maling-sia (Maling: Indonesian and Malaysian for a common thief)[29].
The government of Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono dispatched heavily armed Forestry Wardens to deter the thieves. It is expected this issue will be one of the foremost challenges of the winner of the 2009 Indonesian Presidential Election, with the winner expected to take a far stronger and militant stand on Malaysian theft of resources[30].
[edit] Indigenous Beliefs

Many Dayak believe that the belian wood acts as a protective talisman to avoid attack from tigers and elephants. The Dayak believe that this use of the belian talisman and the stands of belian trees was and is the sole cause of a lack of Sumatran elephants or Sumatran Tigers in Kalimantan and Sarawak. The potent 'elephant and tiger repellent' is alleged to be the belian sap (which has a strong, pleasant lemon-like odour).

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Juni 08, 2010



ACRYLIC/WOOD - The generic name for wood-plastic-composites utilizing wood impregnated with acrylic monomers and polymerized within the wood cells by gamma irradiation. Some versions are cured by heat radiation. (In the case of acrylic/wood parquet, a semi-built-in finish is developed.)

AIR-DRIED - Dried by exposure to air in a yard or shed without artificial heat.

ANNUAL GROWTH RING - The layer of wood growth, including spring and summerwood formed on a tree during a single growing season.


BASE SHOE - A molding designed to be attached to base molding to cover expansion space. Similar to quarter round in profile.

BASTARD SAWN - Lumber (primarily hardwoods) in which the annual rings make angles of 30 Degrees to 60 Degrees with the surface of the piece. (Also known as Rift Sawn)

BEVELED EDGE- (See Eased Edge)

BOARD- FOOT - A unit of measurement of lumber represented by a board 1 foot long, 12 inches wide, and 1 inch thick or its cubic equivalent. In practice, the board foot calculation for lumber 1 inch or more in thickness is based on its nominal thickness and width and the actual length. Lumber with a nominal thickness of less than 1 inch is calculated as I inch.

BOW - The distortion of lumber in which there is a deviation, in a direction perpendicular to the flat face, from a straight line from end to end of the piece.

BURL - A swirl or twist of the grain of the wood which usually occurs near a knot, but does not contain a knot.


CHECK - A lengthwise separation of the wood that usually extends across the rings of annual growth and commonly results from stress set up in wood during air drying or kiln-drying.

CHIPBOARD - A paperboard used for many purposes that may or may not have specifications for strength, color, or other characteristics. It is normally made from paper stock with a relatively low density in the thickness of 0.006 inch and up.

COMPRESSION SET - Caused when wood strips or parquet slats absorb excess moisture and expand so much that the cells along the edges of adjoining pieces in the floor are crushed. This causes them to loose resiliency and creates cracks when the floor returns to its normal moisture content.

CONIFEROUS- (See Softwoods)

CROOK - The distortion of a board in which there is a deviation, in a direction perpendicular to the edge, from a straight line from end to end of the piece.

CROSS-PULL - A condition occurring at an end-joint with the ends of flooring strips pulled in opposite directions.

CROWNING - A "convex" or "crowned" condition or appearance of individual strips, with the center of the strip higher than the edges. (Opposite of cupping.)

CUPPING - A "concave" or "dished" appearance of individual strips, with the edges raised above the center. (Opposite of crowning.)

CURE - To change the properties of an adhesive by chemical reaction (which may be condensation, polymer ization, or vulcanization) and thereby develop maximum strength. Generally accomplished by the action of heat or a catalyst, with or without pressure.

CUSTOM FLOORS - Wood floors that are made to order. Complete flexibility is allowed for design, specie grade, etc.


DECAY - The decomposition of wood by fungi.

Advanced Decay - The older stage of decay in which destruction is readily recognized by soft, pitted, or crumbly areas. Decided discoloration or bleaching of the rotted wood is often apparent.
Incipient Decay - The early stage of decay that has not proceeded far enough to soften or otherwise perceptibly impair the hardness of the wood. It is usually accompanied by a slight discoloration or bleaching of the wood.
DELAMINATION - The separation of layers in a laminate, through failure within the adhesive, or at the bond between adhesive and laminate.

DECIDUOUS - (See Hardwoods)

DIFFUSE - POROUS WOODS - Certain Hardwoods in which the pores tend to be uniform in size and distribution throughout each annual ring or to decrease in size slightly and gradually toward the outer border of the annual growth ring. (EXAMPLE: Hard Maple)

DIMENSIONAL STABILITY - The ability to maintain the original intended dimensions when influenced by a foreign substance. Wood is hygroscopic, and is not dimensional stable with changes in moisture content below the fiber saturation point.

DISTRESSED - A heavy artificial texture in which the floor has been scraped, scratched, or gouged to give it a time-worn antique look. (A common method of distressing is wirebrushing.)

DRY WALL - Interior covering material, such as gypsum board, hardboard, or plywood, which is applied in large sheets or panels.


EASED EDGE - The chamfered, or beveled edge, of strip flooring, plank, block, and parquet at approximately 45 degree angle. Eased edge is considered to be less of a indentation than beveled edge flooring.

END-JOINT - The place where two pieces of flooring are joined together end to end.

END MATCHED - In strip and plank flooring the ends of individual pieces have a tongue milled on one end and a groove milled on the opposite end, so that when the individual strips or planks are butted together, the tongue of one piece engages the groove of the next piece.
(A male projection milled on one edge of a strip, plank, slat or unit to be engaged with a female counterpart on an adjoining unit.)

EQUILIBRIUM MOISTURE CONTENT - The moisture content at which wood neither gains nor loses moisture when surrounded by air at a given relative humidity and temperature.


FEATURE STRIP - A molding accessory for parquet floors utilized to separate squares into patterns larger than the individual parquet units. It is available in widths from 5/16" to 2", the same thickness as the parquet, and is available in various lengths. The strip is flat and may have grooves on both sides to match the tongues of adjacent plank or parquet.

FIBERBOARD - A broad generic term inclusive of sheet materials of wisely varying densities manufactured of refined or partially refined wood (or other vegetable) fibers. Bonding agents and other materials may be added to increase strength, resistance to moisture, fire, or decay, or to improve some other property.

FIBER SATURATION POINT - The stage in drying or wetting wood at which the cell walls are saturated with water and the cell cavities are free from water. It is usually taken as approximately 30% moisture content, based on ovendry weight.

FIGURE - Inherent markings, designs, or configurations on the surface of the wood produced by the annual growth rings, rays, knots and deviations from regular grain.

FILLER - In woodworking, any substance used to fill the holes and irregularities in planed or sanded surfaces to decrease the porosity of the surface before applying finish coatings.

Wood Filler - (for Cracks, Knot Holes, Worm Holes, Etc.) Usually a commercial wood putty, Plastic Wood, or other materials mixed to the consistency of putty. A wood filler may also be mixed on the job using sander dust from the final sanding, or other suitable material, mixed with sealer, or finish.
FIRE RESISTANCE - The property of a material or assembly, to withstand fire or give protection from it.

FIRE RETARDANT - A chemical or preparation of chemicals used to reduce flammability or to retard spread of a fire over the surface.

FLAG - A heavy dark mineral streak shaped like a banner.

FLAG WORM HOLE - One or more worm holes surrounded by a mineral streak.

FLAME SPREAD - The propagation of a flame away from the source of ignition across the surface of a liquid or a solid, or through the volume of a gaseous mixture.

FLECKS - The wide irregular conspicuous figure in Quartersawn oak flooring. (Also, See Rays, Wood)



HARDWOOD- Generally, one of the botanical groups of deciduous trees that have broad leaves in contrast to the conifers or softwoods. The term has no reference to the actual hardness of the wood.

HEARTWOOD - The wood extending from the pith of the sapwood, the cells of which no longer participate in the life processes of the tree. It is usually darker than sapwood.

HEAVY STREAKS - Spots and streaks of sufficient size and density to severely mar the appearance of the wood.

HONEY COMBING - Checks often not visible at the surface, that occur in the interior of a piece of wood, usually along the wood rays.

HYGROSCOPIC - A substance that can absorb and retain moisture, or lose or throw off moisture. Wood and Wood Products are hygroscopic. They expand with absorption of moisture, and dimensions become smaller when moisture is lost or thrown off.


INTUMESCE - To expand with heat to provide a low density film; used in reference to certain fire retardant coatings.


JOINTED FLOORING - Strip flooring, generally Birch, Beech & Hard Maple or Pecan, manufactured with Square Edges and no tongue or groove, usually end-matched. Used principally for factory floors where the square edges make replacement of strips easier.

JOIST - One of a series of parallel beams used to support floor or ceiling loads and supported in turn by larger beams, girders, or bearing walls.


KILN - (Pronounced "Kill") A chamber having controlled air flow, temperature, and relative humidity, for drying lumber, veneer and other wood products.

KILN DRIED - Dried in a Kiln with the use of artificial heat.

KNOT - That portion of a branch or limb which has been surrounded by subsequent growth of the stem. 'Me shape of the knot as it appears on a cut surface depends on the angle of the cut relative to the long axis of the knot.

Small Knot - In hardwood strip flooring not over 1/2" in diameter.
Pin Knot - A knot that is not more than 1/2 inch in diameter.
Sound Knot - A knot cut approximately parallel to its long axis so that the exposed section is definitely elongated.


LAMINATED WOOD - An assembly made by bonding layers of veneer or lumber with an adhesive. May also refer to edge-glued lumber items such as treads, etc.


MANUFACTURING DEFECTS - Includes all defects or blemishes that are produced in manufacturing, such as chipped grain, tom grain, skips in dressing, hit and miss (a series of surfaced areas with skips between them), variation in machining, machine burn, mismatching.

MEDULLARY RAYS - Strips of cells extending radially within a tree and varying in height from a few cells in some species to four or more inches in oak. The rays serve primarily to store food and transport it horizontally in the tree. On quartersawn oak, the rays form a conspicuous figure, sometimes referred to as Flecks.

MINERAL STREAK - Wood containing an accumulation of mineral matter introduced by sap flow, causing an unnatural color ranging from greenish brown to black.

MIXED MEDIA - A wood floor that is predominantly of wood but incorporates other materials such as slate, stone, ceramic, marble, metal and painted finishes (faux).

MOISTURE CONTENT - The amount of moisture in wood expressed as a percentage of the weight of the oven dry wood.

National Oak Flooring Manufacturers Association hardwood flooring is manufactured at 6% to 9% moisture content, with a 5% allowance for pieces up to 12% moisture content.

American Parquet Association parquet flooring is to be 7% to 11% moisture content at time of shipment. 5% of the flooring may be outside of this range.

MOSAIC PARQUET - A parquet flooring made up of small solid pieces of wood (slats) assembled in units that may consist of individual squares, units with slats arranged in single or double herringbone design, or units or squares bordered with slats of the same or contrasting species.


NOSING - A hardwood molding used to cover the outside comer of a step, milled to meet the hardwood floor in the horizontal plane, to meet the riser in the vertical plane. (Usually used on landings.)

NOMINAL SIZE - As applied to timber or lumber, the size by which it is known and sold in the market; often differs from the actual size.



PARQUET - A patterned floor.

PARQUET FLOOR SQUARE - Basically a "tile" composed of individual slats held in place by a mechanical fastening (banding) or other means such as paper backing. A square may or may not possess tongues and grooves to interlock, and is not necessarily regular in dimension.

PARQUET FLOOR UNITS - A unit consists of four (sometimes three) or more squares or "tiles" fastened together.

PARTICLEBOARD - A generic term for a material manufactured from wood particles or other lignocellulosic material and a synthetic resin or other suitable binder.

Flakeboard - A particle panel product composed of flakes.
Oriented Strand Board - A type of particle panel product composed of strand-type flakes which are purposefully aligned in directions which make a panel stronger, stiffer, and with improved dimensional properties in the alignment directions than a panel with random flake orientation.
Waferboard - A particle panel product made of wafer-type flakes. Usually manufactured to possess equal properties in all directions parallel to the plane of the panel.

PIN WORM HOLE - In hardwood flooring - a small round hole not over 1/16" in diameter, made by a small wood boring insect.
PITH- The small, soft core occurring near the center of a tree trunk, branch, twig, or log.

PLAINSAWN - The annual growth rings make an angle of less than 45 Degrees with the surface of the piece. This exposes the pores of the springwood and dense summerwood of the annual growth ring in ring porous woods to produce a pleasing grain pattern.

PLANER BITE - A groove cut in the surface of the piece deeper than intended by the planer knives.

PLANK- Solid boards, usually 3/4" thick and 3" to 8" wide designed to be installed in parallel rows. Edges may be beveled to simulate the appearance of Colonial American plank floors.

PLUGS - Dowels that simulate the Colonial American plugged, or pegged plank look. Sometimes used to cover counter-sunk screws when installing plank.

PREFINISHED - A completely finished flooring that requires installation only.


QUARTERSAWED - The annual growth rings form an angle of 45 Degrees - 90 Degrees with the surface of the piece. In Quartersawed strips the medullary rays or pith rays in ring porous woods are exposed as flecks which are reflective and produce a distinctive grain pattern.


RAISED GRAIN - A roughened or fuzzy condition on the face of the flooring in which the dense summer- wood in raised above the softer springwood, but not torn or separated.

RAYS, WOOD - Strips of cells extending radially within a tree and varying in height from a few cells in some species to 4 inches or more in oak. The rays serve primarily to store food and transport it horizontally in the tree. On Quartersawn oak flooring, the rays form a conspicuous figure, sometimes referred to as Flecks.

REDUCER STRIP - A tearshaped molding accessory for hardwood flooring, normally used at doorways, but sometimes at fireplaces and as a room divider. It is grooved on one edge and tapered, or feathered, on the other edge. Various lengths are available.

RELATIVE HUMIDITY - Ratio of the amount of water vapor present in the air to that which the air would hold at saturation at the same temperature. It is usually considered on the basis of the weight of the vapor but, for accuracy, should be considered on the basis of vapor pressures.

RIFT SAWN - Lumber (primarily hardwoods) in which the annual rings make angles of 30 Degrees to 60 Degrees with the surface of the piece. (Also known as Bastard Sawn)

RING POROUS - A group of hardwoods in which the pores are comparatively large at the beginning of each annual growth ring and decrease in size, more or less abruptly, toward the outer portion of the annual growth ring. The large pores are springwood and the smaller pores are summerwood.


SAPWOOD - The wood near the outside of the tree. Usually lighter in color than heartwood.

SAWN - (See Plainsawed, Quartersawed, Bastardsawn)

SCREEDS - Usually a 2" X 4" laid flat side down and attached to a concrete subfloor to provide a nailing surface for tongued and grooved strip flooring or a wood subfloor.

SLEEPER - Another name for SCREEDS.

SHAKE - A separation along the grain, the greater part of which occurs between the annual growth rings.

SHEATHING - The structural covering, usually boards or plywood, placed over exterior studding or rafters of a structure.

SLATS - The small solid hardwood pieces which form Mosaic Parquet Squares.

SLIP-TONGUE - A spline or small strip of wood or metal used to reverse or change direction in installing standard tongue and groove strip flooring. Sometimes used in laying 3/4" solid tongue and groove parquet.

SOFTWOOD - General term used to describe lumber produced from needle and/or cone bearing trees (Conifers)

SPLIT - Separations of wood fiber running parallel to the grain.

SQUARES - Usually composed of an equal number of Slats.

SQUARE EDGE - A flooring that is NOT Tongue & Grooved. Square edged strip flooring is face nailed when installed. (Also See Jointed Flooring.)

SQUARE JOINT - Tongue & Grooved strip or plank flooring with edges that are not eased or beveled.

STAIN - A discoloration occurring in or on flooring of any color other than the natural color of the species. For instance, blue stain, brown stain.

STREAKS - (See Mineral Streaks)

STRIP FLOORING - Solid boards to be installed in parallel rows now produced in these thicknesses 1/2", 3/4", 33/32" and these widths 1 1/2", 2", 2 1/4", and occasionally 3 1/4". The strips are tongue and grooved and end matched. They are for nail down installation directly to wood or plywood subfloors; or over wood screeds on concrete slab construction.

STUD - One of a series of slender wood structural members used as supporting elements in walls and partitions.


TONGUE & GROOVE (T&G) - In strip, plank, and parquet flooring made from strip, and some mosaic parquet; a tongue is milled one edge and a groove on the opposite edge. As the flooring is installed the tongue of each strip, slat, or unit, is engaged with the groove of the adjacent strip or unit.

TRIM - The finish materials in a building, such as moldings, applied around openings (window trim, door trim) or at the floor and ceiling of rooms (baseboard, shoemold, cornice, and other moldings)


UNFINISHED - A product which must be sanded and have stain and/or a finish applied after installation.

UNITS - Four or more basic Mosaic Parquet Squares; or four or more slats in 3/4" parquet, usually made from T&G strip flooring combined into a parquet unit.


V-JOINT - A term used in plank flooring to indicate that edges are eased or beveled to simulate cracks in floors of early Colonial American homes.

VAPOR BARRIER - A material with a high resistance to vapor movement, such as foil, plastic film, or specially coated paper, that is used to control condensation or prevent migration of moisture.


WARPING - Any distortion of a piece of flooring from its true plane that may occur in seasoning.

WIRE BRUSHING - A method for imparting an artificial texture or distressed appearance to the surface of hardwood flooring.